Thanks to Ralph Nicholls, I am able to put the following material up on these web pages. This consists of the conference photograph and caption, the opening and closing remarks, the table of contents and the list of participants at the historic Conference on Auroral Physics, held at the University of Western Ontario, July 23-26, 1951. Don Moorcroft. [This conference was referred to during the workshop several times: (1) here, (2) here, and (3) here

title page for proceedings of the auroral conference


photograph of auroral conference participants

CONFERENCE ON AURORAL PHYSICS
UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN ONTARIO, LONDON, ONTARIO
23-26 JULY 1951

Front row, left to right: H. E. Moses, J. F. Carlson, A. T. Vassy, C. Stormer, M. E. Warga, N. L Oliver, R. M. Chapman, B. T. Darling, L. Herman.
Second row, left to right: A. B. Meinel, T.Y. Wu, S. Borowitz, L. Katz, N. C. Gerson, Chairman, D. Barbier.
Third row, left to right: R. W. Nicholls, D. M. Hunten, S. Chapman, H. S. W. Massey, C. W. Gartlein, J. Vandertuin, E. Vassy, W. Petrie, R. G. Turner.
Fourth row, left to right: D. Schulte, A. L. Aden, H. Alfven, A. D. Misener, D. R. Bates, R. W. B. Pearse, S. Altschuler, C. E. Montgomery, O. Oldenberg.
Back row, left to right: M. W. Feast, J. H. Blackwell.



PREFACE

N.C.GERSON
Chairman and Co-Editor

The Conference on Auroral Physics was convened on 23-26 July 1951 at London, Ontario, Canada. It was jointly sponsored by the Geophysics Research Directorate of the USAF Cambridge Research Center and the Department of Physics of the University of Western Ontario. The steering committee responsible for planning the symposium consisted of A. D. Misener, R.W. Nicholls, and the writer. In outlining the program, attempts were made to cover all aspects of the aurora and ensure that no major development or trend had escaped attention. It is hoped that these objectives have been fulfilled.

Some of the earliest research on the aurora was undertaken by Carl Stormer who so kindly consented to join us on this occasion. Later investigations were continued by ottier scientists in Norway, Germany, Switzerland, France, and Great Britain. In recent years, the United States and Canada have entered the field of auroral research and have produced marked progress in this field.

It is very appropriate that this Conference on Auroral Physics be held in the Dominion of Canada which is so favorably located for auroral observations and which is dsing this great geographic advantage to place herself in the forefront of auroral physics. All the papers presented at the conference together with the attendant discussions are included in this volume. Each author and participant has been given the opportunity to review his paper and edit his remarks. Although the majority of revisions were completed by June 1952, compilation difficulties delayed issuance of the Proceedings.

It is hoped that the Proceedings, gathering in one volume a representative and comprehensive report on progress in auroral physics, will serve in several capacities: as a reference volume of completed research, as a guide and stimulus to future investigations, and as a basic text for those who may consider entering this field.

This volume would not have been possible without the cooperation of all authors in reviewing and revising their papers and discussions, and acknowledgment is gratefully made for their painstaking contributions.

ADDRESS OF WELCOME

G. E. HALL
University of Western Ontario
London, Ontario

The University of Western Ontario is extremely pleased to welcome this first Conference on Auroral Physics. The mere fact that a large group of internationally known physicists are gathered together on our campus to discuss the many problems of the aurora and those factors which influence the aurora, makes us very happy. We hope that tlus conference is a success. We hope that after the official meetings much will be gained, as is always the case, at the informal discussions which follow when people who have known each other only through their scientific writings will have the opportunity of talking with each other. We from the Dominion of Canada are delighted to have the opportunity of playing host to you from other countries in Europe and the United States.

We hope that you will enjoy this little university. Very briefly, we are patterned after the English type of university. We have what is known as the constituent university, that part of the university which includes the college of arts and sciences, the faculty of medicine and several other units. In addition to these constituent components, the university encompasses (the six affiliated colleges. The overall university with its affiliated colleges is quite small, numbering about 4500 students. We have a spirit in our small university which is difficult to obtain in a larger institution. Since we are located in the city of London, Ontario, which has a population of somewhat under a hundred thousand, the university is able to take its place in a very major way in the life of the community and becomes a significant part of that community.

We trust that your visit with us will be a pleasant one and we sincerely hope that you will have a very successful and enjoyable conference.

.

ADDRESS OF WELCOME

M. GREENBERG
Geophysics Research Directorate, Air Force Cambridge Research Center
Cambridge, Mass.

On behalf of the Air Force and the Geophysics Research Directorate of the Air Force Cambridge Research Center, I should like to welcome you to this Conference on Auroral Physics.

The Geophysics Research Directorate, because of its fundamental concern with problems of the terrestrial atmosphere initiated in 1949 a series of conferences dealing with problems of thevarious atmospheric shells. This program began with a Conference on Ionospheric Research at State College,Pennsylvania(1). Although we had originally intended to discuss the statics, dynamics, and mechanisms of the higher atmospheric regions, it soon became apparent during the planning stages of that conference that comparatively little research in these fields was being undertaken in North America. The main topic of theConference on Ionospheric Research then revolved, of necessity, about radio wave propagation and associated problems, the type of research that was then being emphasized.

In 1950 the Geophysics Research Directorate sponsored a second conference. This Conference on Ionospheric Physics (2-3) dealt with the processes, mechanisms, and dynamics of the ionosphere and the meso- sphere. At that time we were able to convoke an international group of scientists all of whom were experts on some phase of the upper atmosphere.

A Colloquium on Mesospheric Physics was later convened in Cambridge, Massachusetts(4). The topics discussed included collisional processes, photochemical reactions, solar-terrestrial relationships, and meso- spheric dynamics. The objective of this Colloquium was to survey existing knowledge of the chemosphere, ionosphere, and mesosphere those atmospheric regions located in the altitude range 30-80 km, 80-100 km, and 400-1000 km respectively.

To us of the Geophysics Research Directorate, the Conference on Auroral Physics represents a contin- uation of the series of conferences designed to foster a better understanding of the earth's atmosphere and stimulate scientific activity in geophysics. The present conference attempts to follow the history of the aurorae from the particles which bombard the atmosphere, to the initiation and maintenance of the visible and ionized aurorae. Through a study of the aurorae, the higher regions of the atmosphere may be examined and the processes occurring within them may be deduced.

In short, we of the Geophysics Research Directorate consider our efforts as a part of a unified whole having as its objective a more detailed and intensive description of the entire atmosphere. Our objectives are clear; the paths, though difficult, are not insuperable.

In a spirit of true scientific endeavor and on behalf of the Air Force Cambridge Research Center, I should like to welcome all of you to (this Conference on Auroral Physics.

1. Underhill, B. B., and R. J. Donaldson (1950); Geophys. Res. Papers, No. 7.
2. Gerson, N. C., and R. J. Donaldson (1952): Geophys. Res. Papers No. 11.
3. Katz, L., and N. C. Gerson (1952): Geophys. Res. Papers, No. 12.
4. Gerson, N. C. (1951): Geophys. Res. Papers, No. 8.

CONTENTS

Section Page
Frontispiece ................................................ ii
Preface ..................................................... iii
Address of Welcome ..........................................
G. E. Hall
v
Address of Welcome ..........................................
M. Greenberg
vi
List of Participants ........................................ xxi
I. INTRODUCTION ................................................
N.C. Gerson
1
II.OBSERVATIONS OF THE AURORA AND AIRGLOW
A.The Aurora
Protons and the Aurora ......................................
A. B. Meinel
41
The Intensities of Ultraviolet Features of the Auroral Spectrum
W. Petrie and R. Small
61
The Near-Infrared Spectrum of the Aurora ....................
A. B. Meinel
75
Sunlit Aurorae ..............................................
C. Stormer
95
Radio Wave Reflections from Aurorae .........................
P. A. Forsyth
117
B.The Airglow
Investigation of the Green Line Emission in the Night Airglow
D. Barbier, J. Dufay and D. R. Williams
137
Diurnal Variation of the (0 I) 5577 A Radiation in the Night Airglow
F. E. Roach
185
III.LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS OF ATMOSPHERIC REACTIONS
Laboratory Methods of Investigating Processes Important in the High Atmosphere
H. S. W. Massey
205
Laboratory Studies of Auroral Afterglow .......................
L. and R. Herman
221
IV.INTERPRETATION OF ATMOSPHERIC EMISSIONS
Excitation of the Spectrum of Molecular Nitrogen in the Laboratory and in the High Atmosphere
R. G. Bernard
243
Intensity Distribution in the Rotation Vibration Spectrum of the OH Molecule
H.S. Heaps and G. Herzberg
271
The Kinetics of Excitation of Molecular Nitrogen and Other Molecules
R.W. Nicholls
291
Atomic and Molecular Processes ................................
D. R. Bates
391
Identification of Lines and Bands in the Night Airglow and Aurora
R. W. B. Pearse
341
V.GEOMAGNETIC STORMS AND THE AURORA
A. Theory of the Aurora Polaris ..................................
S. Chapman
367
Theories of the Aurora ........................................
H. Alfven......................................................
S. Chapman ....................................................
391
391
393
VI.SOLAR PHENOMENA AND MAGNETO-HYDRODYNAMIC WAVES
Emission of Corpuscles From the Sun . .........................
K. O. Kiepenheuer
403
Magneto-Hydrodynamic Waves in the Sun .........................
H. Alfven
415
VII.ATMOSPHERIC ABSORPTION
Absorption of Solar Radiation by the Atmosphere ...............
A. and E. Vassy
427
VIII.ADDENDA
Closing Remarks .................446
Author Index ..................................................447
Subject Index .................................................453

LIST OF PARTICIPANTS

A. L. ADEN
Geophysics Research Directorate
Air Force Cambridge Research Center
Cambridge, Massachusetts
R. H. ADLINGTON
Department of Physics
University of Western Ontario
London, Ontario
V. AGY
Central Radio Propagation Laboratory
Washington, D. C.
H. ALFVEN
Department of Electronics
The Royal Institute of Technology
Stockholm, Sweden
R. L.ALLEN
Department of Physics
University of Western Ontario
London, Ontario
S. ALTSCHULER
Department of Physics
Iowa State College
Ames, Iowa
R. L. BAGLOW
David Dunlap Observatory
Richmond Hill, Ontario
D. BARBIER
Institut D'Astrophysique
98bis Boul. Arago
Paris 14ieme, France
F. L. BARTMAN
University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, Michigan
D. R.BATES
The Queen's University
Belfast, North Ireland
D. K. BERKEY
Colgate University
Hamilton, New York
R. BERNARD
Institut de Physique
Universite de Lyon
Lyon, France
J. H. BLACKWELL
Department of Physics
University of Western Ontario
London, Ontario
H. G. BOOKER
Cornell University
Ithaca, New York
S. BOROWITZ
New York University
Washington Square
New York, New York
K. L. BOWLES
Cornell University
Ithaca, New York
E. BRANNEN
Department of Physics
University of Western Ontario
London, Ontario
T. R. BURNIGHT
Naval Research Laboratory
Washington, D. C.
J. F. CARLSON
Department of Physics
Iowa State College
Ames, Iowa
C. CARMICHAEL
Waterloo College
Waterloo, Ontario
H. CARMICHAEL National Research Council
Chalk River, Ontario
R. M. CHAPMAN
Geophysics Research Directorate
Air Force Cambridge Research Center
Cambridge, Massachusetts
S. CHAPMAN
Queen's College
Oxford, England
B. T. DARLING
Physics Department
Ohio State University
Columbus, Ohio
M. W. FEAST
National Research Council
Ottawa, Ontario
W. A. FLOOD
P. A.FORSYTH
University of Saskatchewan
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan
A. W. FOSTER
Department of Physics
University of Western Ontario
London, Ontario
B. FRIEDMAN
New York University
New York, New York
C. W. GARTLEIN
Cornell University
Ithaca, New York
N. C. GERSON
Geophysics Research Directorate
Air Force Cambridge Research Center
Cambridge, Massachusetts
J. J. GIBBONS
The Pennsylvania State University
State College, Pennsylvania
W. L. GODSON
Meteorological Service
Toronto, Ontario
H. A. HANEMAN R. J.HAVENS
Naval Research Laboratory
Washington, D. C.
J.F. HEARD
David Dunlap Observatory
Richmond Hill, Ontario
L. HERMAN
Astrophysical Observatory
University of Paris
Paris, France
G. HERZBERG
National Research Council
Ottawa, Ontario
W. R. HOSSACK
David Dunlap Observatory
Richmond Hill, Ontario
F. R.HUNT
Department of Physics
University of Western Ontario
London, Ontario
D. M. HUNTEN
University of Saskatchewan
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan
F. S. JOHNSON
Naval Research Laboratory
Washington, D. C.
J. J. JOSEPHS
Boston, Massachusetts
L KATZ
Geophysics Research Directorate
Air Force Cambridge Research Center
Cambridge, Massachusetts
M. KATZIN
Naval Research Laboratory
Washington, D. C.
E. M. KERNER
Detroit, Michigan
H. E. LAGOW
Naval Research Laboratory
Washington, D. C.
E. R. LAIRD
Department of Physics
University of Western Ontario
London, Ontario
A. LANDON
Department of Physics
University of Western Ontario
London, Ontario
J.LEVINSON
Box 811
Alfred, New York
E. A. LEWIS
Electronics Research Directorate
Air Force Cambridge Research Center
Cambridge, Massachusetts
J. E. LOKKEN
Department of Physics
University of Western Ontario
London, Ontario
H. S. W. MASSEY
University College
London, England
R. J. McGREGOR
Department of Physics
University of Western Ontario
London, Ontario
D. P. McINTYRE
Department of Physics
University of Western Ontario
London, Ontario
A. B. MEINEL
Yerkes Observatory
University of Chicago
Williams Bay, Wisconsin
P. M. MILLMAN
Dominion Observatory
Ottawa, Ontario
A. D. MISENER
Department of Physics
University of Western Ontario
London, Ontario
C. E. MONTGOMERY
Department of Physics
University of Western Ontario
London, Ontario
H. E. MOSES
New York University
Washington Square
New York, New York
H. W. NEILL
University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, Michigan
H. E. NEWELL
Naval Research Laboratory
Washington, D. C.
P. NEWMAN
Rome, New York
V. NICHOLS
Cornell University
Ithaca, New York
R. W. NICHOLLS
Department of Physics
University of Western Ontario
London, Ontario
F. E. NICODEMUS
Geophysics Research Directorate
Air Force Cambridge Research Center
Cambridge, Massachusetts
O. OLDENBERG
Lyman Laboratory of Physics
Harvard University
Cambridge, Massachusetts
N. J. OLIVER
Geophysics Research Directorate
Air Force Cambridge Research Center
Cambridge, Massachusetts
W. C. PARKINSON
Washington, D. C.
W. D. PARKINSON
Fordham University
New York, New York
R. W. B. PEARSE
Imperial College
London, England
W. PETRIE
University of Saskatchewan
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan
D. PLEITER
Department of Physics
University of Western Ontario
London, Ontario
J. PRESSMAN
Geophysics Research Directorate
Air Force Cambridge Research Center
Cambridge, Massachusetts
A. QUINTON
Department of Physics
University of Western Ontario
London, Ontario
F. E.ROACH
Naval Ordnance Test Station
Inyokern, California
K. G. ROBERTS
Department of Physics
University of Western Ontario
London, Ontario
D. C. ROSE
National Research Council
Ottawa, Ontario
R. K. SAS
Department of Scientific and
Industrial Research
Capetown, South Africa
M. SCHEIN
University of Chicago
Chicago, Illinois
R. L. SCHRAG
.The Pennsylvania State University
State College, Pennsylvania
D. SCHULTE
Yerkes Observatory
University of Chicago
Williams Bay, Wisconsin
A. H. SHAPLEY
National Bureau of Standards
Washington, D. C.
I. A. SIMPSON
University of Chicago
Chicago, Illinois
G. C. SPRAGUE
Cornell University
Ithaca, New York
H. S. STEWART
Naval Research Laboratory
Washington, D. C.
B. STOICHEFF
University of Toronto
Toronto, Ontario
C. STORMER
The University Observatory
Oslo, Norway
W. G. STROUD
Signal Corps Engineering Laboratories
Belmar, New Jersey
S. SYMBALISTY
Department of Physics
University of Western Ontario
London, Ontario
R. S. THAIN
Defence Research Board
Radio Propagation Laboratory
Ottawa, Ontario
J. H. THOMPSON
Ottawa, Ontario
S. TREIMAN
University of Chicago
Chicago, Illinois
R. G. TURNER
Department of Physics
University of Western Ontario
London, Ontario
J. A. VANDERTUIN
Geophysics Research Directorate
Air Force Cambridge Research Center
Cambridge, Massachusetts
A. T. VASSY
Physiqne de L'Atmosphere
Universite de Paris
1 Quai Branly
Paris 7ieme, France
E. VASSY
Physique de L'Atmosphere
Universite de Paris
1 Quai Branly
Paris 7ieme, France
E. H. VESTINE
Carnegie Institution of Washington
Washington, D. C.
M. E. WARGA
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
A. H. WAYNICK
The Pennsylvania State University
State College, Pennsylvania
H. L. WELSH
University of Toronto
Toronto, Ontario
W. S. WILSON
Geophysical Institute
University of Alaska
College, Alaska
T. Y. WU
National Research Council
Ottawa, Ontario

CLOSING REMARKS

E H. VESTINE: One of our senior investigators whom we have long known as Professor Stormer, who, at the age of 77, has made the long journey from Norway to the Dominion of Canada to meet with us here. Professor Stormer, would you like to make some informal remarks on your reactions to the gathering here?

C. STORMER: I should first like to remark that I have never before participated in a conference where so many interesting phenomena in the field of auroral physics have been discussed. It is very important that many different types of scientists meet to hear each other and discuss their research. I think that this is the first real attempt to convene a conference solely on the physics of the aurora. We are extremely gratified and thankful for the privilege of attending this meeting. I am sure that I speak for all of us in expressing our appreciation for the efforts of N. C. Gerson of the Geophysics Research Division and A. D. Misener of the University of Western Ontario in co-sponsoring such a successful conference.

E. H. VESTINE: In closing, a vote of thanks is now proposed to the Physics Department of the University.of Western Ontario and to the Geophysics Research Division of the Air Force Cambridge Research Center. Both institutions have worked very harden effectuating a well-organized conference.